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Review Article Open Access
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder of CNS and one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. The exact mechanisms underlying PD has been unclear but it is believed that multiple factors are involved. Excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) can causes its accumulation in the human brain and subsequent neural damage and even development of PD-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although recent studies indicated the pathologic and clinical distinction between PD and Mn-induced neurotoxicity, genetically they have been shown some common features and associations. In recent years, the role of epigenetic changes has been well studied in brain development as well as different brain diseases including PD. Meanwhile, environmental agents including Mn have been found to damage the developing and mature nervous system through altering epigenetic regulatory pathways such as DNA methylation. The aim of this contribution was to review the epigenetic involvement in the etiology of PD and Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Other aspects of these syndromes were also discussed. Several lines of evidence have indicated that epigenetic modulation of gene plays more important roles in PD processes. On the other hand, Maternal Mn exposure has been found to be able to cause epigenetic changes in genes associated with neurodegeneration. The current data is very limited to show the association of MN-induced epigenetic changes and PD etiology. Although conclusion about the relationship between PD and Mn exposure need more consolidated studies, studying the molecular mechanisms of the effect of Mn, genetically and epigenetically will be helpful to understand the etiology of PD which is essential for therapeutic strategies of this disease.
Parkinson's disease, Epigenetics, Manganese, Environmental health, Neurotoxicity, Neurodegenerative disorders., Epigenetic Therapy and Clinical trials,Imprinting Epigenetics