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Most of the synthetic drugs used at present as analgesic and antiinflammatory agents cause many side effects and toxic effects. Many medicines of plant origin with analgesic and antiinflammatory activity have been used since long time without adverse effects. The plant Abutilon indicum (AI) is reported to be used as a febrifuge, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used to treat ulcers, toothache and hepatic disorders. Thus the present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory potential of the plant Abutilon indicum. The formalin induced paw licking and tail flick method were used to study the analgesic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to study anti-inflammatory activity. 200 mg/kg dose was selected to study both activities. Wistar strain albino rats were used for all studies. Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. In tail flick test the increase in the reaction time was highly significant (P < 0.001) with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant Abutilon indicum as compared to the control group. Acute edema in the left hind paw of the animals was induced by sub plantar injection of 0.1 ml (1%) carrageenan suspension in normal saline. The ethanolic extract of the plant significantly (P <0.01) reduced the paw edema in carrageenan treated rats. The effect was maximum at 3hr after the carrageenan injection. The significant suppression of inflammation during the whole experimental period indicates the long duration of action of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the ethanolic extract of the plant under study. The phytochemical constituents present in these extracts may be responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the plant Abutilon indicum and the actions may be mediated through CNS and peripheral mechanisms.
Abutilon indicum, pain, inflammation, Paw edema