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Research Article Open Access
Background: Nowadays tramadol is becoming abused more popular among teens in most countries worldwide; especially between males. The aim of present study was to investigate the histopathological and biochemical profiles of acute and chronic toxic effects of tramadol hydrochloride on hepatic, renal and testicular functions.
Materials and methods: Sixty male adult albino Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experimental study. Rats were divided into three equal groups. Each group contained twenty rats. Group I: served as control group. Group II: representing acute tramadol toxicity and group III: representing tramadol dependent use daily for 60 days.
Results: Histopathological results regarding hepatic tissues of group II displayed hemorrhage and cytolysis in the hepatocytes. In group III hepatic tissue showed complete cell membrane degeneration of hepatocytes when both groups compared to group I. Renal tissues in group II showed glomerular hemorrhage while in group III there was atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts, wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules and cellular infiltration when both groups compared to group I. The histopathological examination of testicular tissues revealed atrophy of seminiferous tubules with interstitial calcification in group II. The histopathological lesions were inform of focal testicular degeneration with single or multiple layer of vacuolated spermatocytes, with a little evidence of spermatogenesis in group III when both groups were compared to group I. Biochemical results indicated that the levels of liver enzymes specific (ALT, AST and ALP) and serum bilirubin were significantly increased in group II and III when compared to the control group. Similarly for renal function, the levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were also significantly increased in group II and III when compared to control group. The sex hormones levels were significantly increased (estradiol (E2) and prolactin (PRL) compared to control group , while tramadol administration caused a significant decrease in testosterone level with a gradual reduction in luteinizing hormone ( LH) and follicular stimulating hormone ( FSH) as compared to control group.
Conclusion: Evidence of histopathological and biochemical affection of hepatic, renal and sexual function evoked by acute toxicity of tramadol and its repeated administration for long periods. Recommendations: The necessity of designing a national awareness campaign to the public especially the youth to spotlights on the health hazards of tramadol abuse.
Tramadol, Histopathological changes, Biochemical indices,Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity, Sexual Dysfunction, Rats, Forensic Analysis, Forensic Pathology, Forensic Technologies, Toxicology, Forensic Science, Clinical Forensic Analysis