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Preeclampsia is characterized by development of high blood pressure and proteinuria. It affects 5–8% of all pregnancies and is a major contributor to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In Saudi Arabia, the incidence of preeclampsia is extrapolated to 13,876 out of a population of 25,795,938.In view of increasing number of preeclamptic cases in women of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the objectives of this work was to quantitate and find out the significance of lipid profile levels in preeclamptic pregnancy in comparison with normal pregnancy and also to study the relation between the lipoprotein levels and their effects on kidney. A total of 120 pregnant women were selected in this case-controlled study and divided into three groups; control, high-risk of preeclampsia (HR) and preeclampsia (PET) of 40 each. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients, and the serum levels of triglycerides (Tg), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and very low- density lipoproteins (VLDL), platelet count, 24-hour urinary protein and creatinine were determined. Comparison of different biochemical parameters among the three groups was made by one -way ANOVA. There was significant increase (p<0.001) in levels of VLDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride levels in the women with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women and the high-risk group. Levels of HDL-C was found to decrease significantly (p<0.001) in preeclampsia group compared to control and high-risk group. There was positive correlation between urinary creatinine and different types of lipoproteins, triglycerides and cholesterol. Negative correlation was observed between VLDL and triglyceride with proteinuria and a positive correlation between cholesterol, LDL and HDL with proteinuria was evident in preeclampsia cases. In conclusion, our data suggest that pregnant women with preeclampsia have abnormal lipid profile compared to normal pregnant women. In patients with preeclampsia, increased levels of LDL and cholesterol were positively correlated with urinary creatinine and protein. These observations indicate that the pregnant woman who has elevated lipid levels and abnormal increase in excretion of protein and creatinine are more susceptible to cardiovascular disorders and consequently preeclampsia. Hence, the abnormal lipid profile in pregnant women with increased blood pressure acts as predictor in diagnosis of preeclampsia in early stages of pregnancy.
Abnormal lipid profile, Proteinuria, Preeclampsia, Lipoproteins