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Context Lymph node involvement in pancreatic cancer is a predictor of poor patient long-term survival. The detection of multiple metastatic peri-pancreatic nodes by EUSFNA may dissuade the surgeon from undertaking a curative pancreatic resection. Case report We report an interesting case of a man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, who presented with the diagnostic problem of a pancreatic solid-cystic lesion and multiple malignant-looking peri-pancreatic lymphadenopathy on EUS. EUS-FNA yielded chronic lymphocytic leukaemia involvement in the peri-pancreatic lymph nodes and a markedly elevated CEA in the cystic fluid. The absence of adenocarcinoma involvement of the lymph nodes prompted surgery on the pancreatic lesion with a curative intent. Pancreatic mucinous cystadenocarcinoma was diagnosed and a sub-total pancreatectomy was performed with clear resection margins. All 30 resected peri-pancreatic lymph nodes showed chronic lymphocytic leukemia involvement only. Conclusions This case illustrates that abnormal lymphadenopathy adjacent to a primary pancreatic lesion may not necessarily be due to the latter. Systemic lymphoproliferative disease, as in this case, can masquerade as metastatic adenocarcinoma lymph nodes on EUS. EUS-FNA is useful in diagnosing lympho-proliferative disease.