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Original Articles Open Access
This work involves the quantification, estimation of water content and re-uses options of millet residue in Ngaoundere, Garoua and Maroua with the aim of finding better management options for this waste. Thus, a survey of 22 quarters that constitute the selling points of millet beer locally called «bil-bil» in these towns was done. Here questionnaires were administered to the producers and consumers of «bil-bil» to evaluate the quantities of residues produced and re-use options. Samples of residue were collected at different selling points and dried both in the sun and oven for 48 hours to determine the water content. The duration of the drying process was determined by measuring the time used to obtain a constant mass. The study revealed that nearly 100 % of the producers are women while most of the consumers are low income earner of both sexes. Results also showed 6269 kg, 3818 kg and 1951 kg of residue generated in Maroua, Ngaoundere and Garoua respectively per week during the period of the survey and about 62 % of the residue is used in feeding animals. Depending on the atmospheric conditions, it takes 16 hours in the sun to get dry completely and 24 hours in the oven at 100 °C, giving the water content of 72 % and 84.4 % for the samples using the oven and solar energy respectively. This waste is a problem for the inhabitants and their environments, so, adequate policy and regulatory systems can help improve its management.
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Author(s): Meffo Yemele Bouberte Tsamo Cornelius and Dongo Etienne
Beer, Brewery, Millet, Waste management, Maroua