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Current on-site drug of abuse detection methods involve invasive sampling of blood and urine specimens, or collection of oral fluid, followed by qualitative screening tests using immunochromatographic cartridges. Test confirmation and quantitative assessment of a presumptive positive are then provided by remote laboratories, an inefficient and costly process decoupled from the initial sampling. Recently, a new noninvasive oral fluid sampling approach that is integrated with the chip-based Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip (p-BNC) platform has been developed for the rapid (~ 10 minutes), sensitive detection (~ ng/ml) and quantitation of 12 drugs of abuse. Furthermore, the system can provide the time-course of select drug and metabolite profiles in oral fluids. For cocaine, we observed three slope components were correlated with cocaine-induced impairment using this chipbased p-BNC detection modality. Thus, this p-BNC has significant potential for roadside drug testing by law enforcement officers. Initial work reported on chipbased drug detection was completed using ‘macro’ or “chip in the lab” prototypes, that included metal encased “flow cells”, external peristaltic pumps and a bench-top analyzer system instrumentation. We now describe the next generation miniaturized analyzer instrumentation along with customized disposables and sampling devices. These tools will offer real-time oral fluid drug monitoring capabilities, to be used for roadside drug testing as well as testing in clinical settings as a non-invasive, quantitative, accurate and sensitive tool to verify patient adherence to treatment.
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Author(s): Nicolaos Christodoulides Richard De La Garza II Glennon W Simmons Michael P McRae Jorge Wong Thomas F Newton Thomas R Kosten Ahmed Haque and John T McDevitt
Drugs of abuse, Programmable Bio-nano-chip, Oral fluid, Multiplexed, On-site testing, Advances in Substance Abuse Treatment, Subtance Abuse Treatment