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Original Articles Open Access
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of skimming and condensation on composition and sensory quality of buffalo milk. Skimmed milk, and skimmed condensed milk of buffalo were examined for moisture, fat and ash contents; titrable acidity, specific gravity and sensory attributes like taste/flavor, body/texture and appearance against that of whole milk (control).Moisture content was remarkably higher in skimmed milk (88.90±0.15%) as compared to that of in skimmed condensed milk (75.80±0.55%) and in whole milk (84.18±0.34%). The increase in moisture content of skimmed milk was found to be related to the process of skimming where cream (fat rich portion of milk) was separated from whole milk. The condensation process had reduced the moisture content. Average fat content among the dry matter was found to be 41.40±0.69% and it reduced to 2.14±0.12% after skimming process. The condensation process improved the average fat content up to 2.42±0.19% in condensed skimmed milk, but differences were statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Average ash content in whole buffalo milk was observed as 5.09±0.09%; dry matter basis (DMB), and it were increased to 7.45±0.09 %; DMB, when cream was separated. The remarkable increase in ash content i.e. from 7.45±0.09 to 8.69±0.21% was observed in condensed skimmed milk. The titrable acidity in term of lactic acid was comparatively higher in condensed milk (0.21±0.003%) followed by skimmed milk (0.19±0.002%) and whole buffalo milk (0.16±0.003%), but it relatively appeared under normal range. Average specific gravity of whole milk was observed as 1.031±0.003 and after separating cream from whole milk.It increased to 1.035±0.0002 in skimmed milk. The condensing of skimmed milk revealed the significantly (P <0.05) highest specific gravity(1.057±0.002) in the final product compared to that of skimmed milk and whole milk in present study. Sensory scores for flavor /taste in whole milk, skimmed milk and skimmed condensed milk were 18.23±0.32, 16.13±0.27 and 27.83±0.12, respectively from a total score of 30. Condensed milk (23.27±0.26)had shown better body/texture than that of whole milk (14.07±0.28) and skimmed milk (11.97±0.12)among score of 25. The appearance of skimmed condensed milk (8.83±0.14) exhibited the enhanced/better score in contrast to that of whole milk (6.13±0.19) and skimmed milk (4.84±0.14) among a total score of 10.
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Author(s): Hassan SM Khaskheli M Shah AH Shah MG Umer M Nisha ARTariq M Rahman A and Khan MS
Physio-chemical, Skimmed, Condensed, Milk, Buffalo, Chemical Analysis of food