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Review Article Open Access
The race for producing more crop yield by adopting more intensive agronomic practices and applying more fertilizers is thought to have had adverse effects on the soil health. Improvement in agriculture sustainability requires optimal use and management of soil fertility and soil physical properties, both of which rely on soil biological processes and soil biodiversity. In this context, the long-lasting challenges in soil microbiology are development of effective methods to know the types of microorganisms present in soil, and to determine functions which they perform in situ. It is imperative to understand the relationship of soil and plants with the diversity of associated bacteria, rhizobacteria, defining the roles of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) to evolve strategies for their better exploitation. Different cropping systems are of central interest to explore for sustainable agriculture. The rhizosphere, considered to be a hot spot of bacterial diversity, harbors bacterial flora whose diversity is mainly expressed in terms of functions adapted to the root presence, and in particular to favor plant growth. This in turn is beneficial to the whole rhizosphere microbiota through the highly nutritive and energetically rhizo-depositions. Plant growth promotion and development can be facilitated both directly and indirectly. Generally, PGPR function in three different ways: synthesizing particular compounds for the plants, facilitating the uptake of certain nutrients from the soil, and preventing the plants from diseases. Some common examples of genera exhibiting plant growth promotingactivity are Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Serratia etc.
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Author(s): Seema Rawat and Asifa Mushtaq
PGPR, Rhizosphere, Rhizobacteria, Sustainable agriculture, Plant Microbiology,Plant Biotechnology