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This study was conducted to evaluate the immunoglobulin levels in children with Down syndrome and correlate it with the occurrence of lower respiratory tract infection among them. This prospective cohort study included 30 children with Karyotypically ascertained DS and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Patients and controls with infections during the sample collection were excluded. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM concentrations were determined using automated nephelometer (Dade Behring, BN Prospec). Immunoglobulin levels were correlated with prevalence of infections among cases. The episodes of lower respiratory tract infections were more common among cases than controls. The mean serum immunoglobulin G (8.975±1.51 to 18.02±2.46 g/l) and A ( 0.93±0.45 to 1.658±0.46 g/l) levels tend to rise with increased episodes of lower respiratory tract infections. The mean serum immunoglobulin M levels (1.94±0.75 to 0.74±0.24 g/l) tend to be lower in patients with more episodes of lower respiratory tract infections. The prevalence of recurrent lower respiratory tract infections requiring hospitalization was common among children with Down syndrome compared to their age and sex matched control group. The combination of low levels of IgM with elevated levels of IgG and IgA was found in Down syndrome children with increased prevalence of infection. Therefore the higher incidence of respiratory tract infections could be the result of impaired immune system.
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Author(s): Deepa C Parkash Chand Vishnu Bhat B Negi VS Ramachandra Rao K
Down syndrome, Immunoglobulin levels, Lower respiratory tract infections, Hospitalization, Impaired immune system