700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ ReadersThis Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
Research Article Open Access
Back ground: The development of head and neck cancers is associated with extensive use of tobacco and/or tobaccolike products and alcohol; excessive consumption of processed meat and fish; exposure to certain occupational hazards;Â and infection with certain oncogenic viruses. At least some of these risk factors are operative in the Republic of Suriname. This suggests that the population may run a greater than average risk for head and neck cancers. In this study,Â the incidence of this group of cancers in Suriname has been determined for 1980 through 2004. The data obtained haveÂ been stratified according to anatomical location, gender, age, as well as ethnic background, and compared with globalÂ values.
Methods and findings: Numbers of diagnoses and patient information were from the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory. Relevant population data were provided by the General Bureau of Statistics. Crude and/or sex-specific incidenceÂ rates were calculated for head and neck cancers overall as well as for all anatomical sites (oral cavity; salivary glands;Â nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses; nasopharynx, oropharynx, as well as hypopharynx; and larynx), and were stratifiedÂ according to gender, age strata 0-19, 20-49, and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups, viz. Hindustani, Creole, andÂ Javanese. From these data, average incidence rates were calculated which were expressed as means Â± SDs per year,Â per 100,000 population per year, or per 100,000 males or females per year. Average yearly crude rates for head andÂ neck cancers overall were approximately 4, and average yearly sex-specific rates about 5 in men and 2 in women. TheÂ most common sites were oral cavity, nasopharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer, occurring at average frequencies of aboutÂ 4, 3, and 3 cases, respectively, per year. Overall head and neck cancers as well as most anatomical sites were 2-3 timesÂ more common in men than in women, increased strongly with older age, and manifested about 2.5 times more oftenÂ in Creole than in Hindustani or Javanese. The exceptions were laryngeal cancer that displayed a male-to-female ratio ofÂ almost 6 to 1, and nasopharyngeal cancer, the age-dependent rise in incidence of which was more gradual than thatÂ for oral cavity and laryngeal cancer, and that occurred more often in Javanese.
Conclusions: The results from this studyÂ suggest that Suriname is a low-risk country for head and neck cancers. These tumors were in general more common inÂ men than in women, occurred more often at older then at younger age, and manifested more frequently in Creole thanÂ in Hindustani and Javanese. Nasopharyngeal cancer, however, may have a predilection for Javanese. Detailed followup studies in Surinameâ€™s cultural, religious, and ethnic diversity may help improve our understanding of head and neckÂ cancer etiology.
Translational Oncology,Cancer Stem Cells,Head and neck cancers