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The inhibitory effects of nutmeg essential oil and three components of this oil at different concentrations were tested by GABA-induced chloride current (I GABA) stimulation through gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors comprising of α1β2γ2s subtype using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique on Xenopus laevis oocytes. The essential oil of the kernels of Myristica fragrans was extracted by steam distillation and was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) technique. A total of 16 compounds were isolated from the essential oil. The essential oil showed promising activity by enhanced I GABA up to 100% of stimulation when tested at 100 nL/mL. For dose dependent activity, α-terpineol and myristicin showed statistical significant potentiation of I GABA. α-Terpineol was found to induce an enhancement of I GABA modulation (EC5-10) by 229.6±23.8% and 326.3±43.8%, at 100 μM and 500 μM, respectively. Myristicin induced an enhancement up to 237.6±35.1% at 500 μM. In contrast, limonene exhibited weak modulation compared to GABA controls at the same concentration. The essential oil and its two components exhibited promising inhibitory activity by enhancement of I GABA that provides scientific evidence for its traditional use in the treatment of epilepsy.
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Author(s): Ahmad Tarmizi Che Has Mohammad Rafiqul Islam Igor Baburin SteffenHering Hasnah Osman Habsah Mohamad Jafri Malin Abdullah
Myristica fragrans, α-Terpineol, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), GABAA receptor, epilepsy