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Purpose : The purpose of the present study was to explore the knowledge of women in a Greek Province regarding cervical cancer, its prevention capabilities and the Pap test. Method and material : Τhe sample-studied consisted of 100 adult women attended in outpatient settings. The data were collected by the completion of a questionnaire referring to the knowledge of the women regarding the prevention of the cervical cancer, and the Pap test. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0 and the methods used were X2 test along with Yates’ correction for 2x2 tables. Results : 81% of the participants belonged to the group of 20-45 years old. Regarding the demographic characteristics, 53% of the sample-studied were High School graduates, 59.2% were not employed, and 71% lived in urban areas. Regarding the perception of women towards the disease, 63.2% considered it common, 17.3% very common, whereas 19.4% responded it was rare or very rare. 64.3% of the participants reported the doctor as the main source of information, 15.3% the family and 20.4% reported other sources of information. Regarding the frequency of having the Pap test, 79% had conducted it at least once in their life. 71.3% had the test in the last 1-3 years, whereas 28.7% within the last year. In regard to the precise knowledge for the purpose of the test, 23.6% reported the prevention of the cancer, 19.1% the prevention of the cancer of the genitals, 55.1% the cervical cancer and 2.2% reported other reasons. Single women knew to a smaller extent what the Pap test was compared to married, divorced or widowed with statistical significant difference, p= 0.000. Regarding the place of residence, women living in urban area knew better what the test was, with statistical significant difference compared to the village residents, p=0.000. In terms of the causes for not having conducted the test, 40% reported negligence, 25% lack of information and 35% reported other reasons as the main causes for not having the test. Conclusions : Even though there is a satisfactory level regarding general knowledge, the more specialized knowledge is rather fragmentary. Socioeconomic factor s play important role in taking the Pap test.