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Research Article Open Access
Peripheral tinnitus is a good candidate for inclusion under the NO/ONOO – cycle etiological mechanism, fitting each of the five principles of this mechanism. Cases of tinnitus are initiated by at least 11 short-term stressors increasing nitric oxide or other cycle mechanisms. Such cycle elements as N -methyl- D -aspartate activity; oxidative stress; nitric oxide; peroxynitrite; vanilloid activity; NF- B activity; and intracellular calcium levels are all reported to be elevated in tinnitus. Tinnitus is comorbid with some putative NO/ONOO– cycle diseases. Most important, multiple agents that down-regulate NO/ONOO– cycle biochemistry are reported to be helpful in the treatment of tinnitus and related diseases. Previous studies suggested that NO/ONOO– cycle diseases may be best treated with complex combinations of agents predicted to lower NO/ONOO– cycle biochemistry, and such combinations may be helpful in tinnitus treatment. Other inner-ear-related defects, such as acute or progressive hearing loss, vertigo, and dizziness, may also be NO/ONOO – cycle diseases.
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Author(s): Martin L Pall and Sabrina A Bedient
chronic inflammatory disease, cochlea, excitotoxicity, reactive nitrogen species, vicious-cycle mechanism