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Review Article Open Access
Diet serves as a primary prevention approach to reduce the global burden of cancer. In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research published the Second Expert Report (SER) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective outlining lifestyle recommendations for primary cancer prevention. Results support a strong link between red and processed meat and colorectal carcinogenesis. Findings from the Colorectal Cancer 2011 Report: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer, a review conducted through the WCRF Continuous Update Project (CUP), strengthened the evidence and supported the conclusions found in the SER. This review explored the available evidence since the publication of the 2011 CUP report and provides an update of the literature, specific to colorectal cancer (CRC) and diet. Furthermore, several proposed mechanisms, including heterocyclic amines (HCAs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), and heme iron, may explain the effects of meat on the cancer process. The studies reviewed continue to support the causal link between red and processed meat consumption and CRC. The most recent literature supports the preventative role of consuming a plant-based diet low in red and processed meat for overall cancer prevention.
Colorectal cancer, Cancer prevention, Diet, Iron, Cancer risk, Therapeutic Diet, Diet Therapy