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Original Articles Open Access
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. Human lips are a tactile sensory organ, most of the substance of each lip is supplied by the orbicularis oris muscle, which encircles the opening. This muscle and others that radiate out into the cheeks make possible the lips’ many variations in shape and expression. Lips are unique -- they aren't like any other part of the human body. But although they look different from the rest of your skin, they're actually quite similar. The lips form the border between the exterior skin of the face and the mucous membranes of the interior of the mouth. The skin of the lips has no hair follicles, no sweat glands and no sebaceous glands. Because of this, there is no production of natural emollients or perspiration to keep the skin smooth, and the thinness means that the lips can become dry and chapped easily. The thinness of the lips also means that the blood vessels below the surface are more readily visible and in individuals who have pale skin tone, the lips have much fewer melanocytes (pigment cells) and often take on a very pink tone. With individuals of darker skin tone, the lips are often less notably different in color. Lip drug administration can be used to deliver drugs for either local or systemic effect. The review highlights on the anatomy and physiology of lips, various diseases affecting them, its formulations and the treatment options as novel drug delivery platform.
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Author(s): Krishnapriya Karthika Ramesh Vishnu Shaji and Sreeja C Nair
Translabial drug delivery, systemic route, lip skin