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Background: Terminal ballistics is an important field of ballistic science, which studies the damages in the human body that result from missiles and modern arms of battle that enter into this. The present work studies the damages that are created at the human brain in case of injury caused by the missile’s entrance into the cranium. Method and Material: The method of this study included bibliography research of chapters of books, articles, researches and papers to the internet (MEDLINE and CINAHL databases) in order to become a review of the Hellenic and the foreign bibliography from 1985 until today. Results: The review of the literature showed that the importance of lesions which are created depends significantly on the ballistic wound mechanisms, the zones of missile’s way in the cranium’s interior, as well as the missile’s effects at the human brain. These factors are considered very important for the patient’s clinical progress. The outcome of patients with cranium-cerebral lesions is unexpected and depends significantly on the direct and correct medical and nursing intervention. Conclusions: The factors that determine the importance of wounds depend on the missile’s characteristics and on the characteristics of cranium’s tissues that are affected. Each scientist in the sector of health ought to know the way in which the missile enters the cranium so as to be able to face the wound immediately and effectively.