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Research Article Open Access
Background: Yemen is a country with a low-level HIV epidemic. Available information shows that female sexworkers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher HIV prevalence and underuse voluntary counselling and testing services (VCT).
Objective: This study explores factors that may affect access to VCT services for FSW and MSM in Yemen in order to find feasible approaches to increase access.
Methodology: This thesis is a review of the literature on access to VCT for FSW and MSM in Yemen and in countries with similar cultural issues and epidemic patterns.
Results: The main model used for VCT in Yemen involves a "client-initiated" approach. This approach is not ideal for promoting access to VCT. The factors that influence access to VCT for FSW and MSM in Yemen include laws that criminalize sex work and homosexuality, stigma, limited services and transport costs. Also age, gender, marital status, literacy, low perceived risk and low awareness play a role in reducing FSW and MSM from accessing VCT.
Conclusion and recommendations: To date, levels of VCT by FSW and MSM in Yemen have been low.
Different approaches should be used to increase access (such as provider-initiated, mobile and web-based interventions). Further research should be undertaken to identify factors that hinder access to VCT for FSW and MSM.
HIV, AIDS, Low epidemic, Concentrated epidemic, MARPs, SW, FSW, MSM, IDU, HIV, AIDS, Low epidemic, Concentrated epidemic