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Review Article Open Access
Pesticide residues with genotoxic potential reach the aquatic environment and constitute a major issue that give rise to concerns at local, regional, national and global scales. Fish serves as an excellent genetic model for the genetic hazard assessment as they are very sensitive to changes in their environment. As there is a close consortium of DNA damage, mutation and induction of various types of genetic disorders, genotoxicity tests like chromosomal aberration test, micronuclei and comet assay are gaining credence and since past few decades many tests have been developed for evaluating genetic alterations in aquatic organisms. These tests rely on the premise that any change to DNA may have enduring and ardent consequences. Thus, the first aim of the genotoxicology is to describe the outcome produced by toxic substances in various test species, but only from the genetic point of view and to draw conclusions that can be extrapolated to man. This review summarizes the genotoxicity tests developed till date and the role of piscine model in genotoxicology. The text also delves the latest knowledge and thinking on these cardinal approaches for the assessment of aquatic environmental health, management and conservation, besides providing useful repository for the researchers especially dealing with aquatic genotoxicity tests. The perspectives for further research on the use of genotoxicology tests were also highlighted.
Piscine model, Genotoxicity methods, Chromosomal aberration test, Micronucleus assay, Comet assay, Aquatic ecosystem, Aquaculture Supplies, Captive Fishing, Home Aquaculture