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Research Article Open Access
Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl. and Colocasia esculentus (L.) Schott. of the family Araceae are plants widely distributed in Africa. The leaves and roots of these plants are traditionally used to treat various disease conditions including dysentery, cough, kidney pains and stomach disorders. This study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of methanol extracts of A. difformis leaves (ADL) and roots (ADR), and C. esculentus leaves (CEL). Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using micro-dilution methods against typed strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and clinical stains of Streptococcus pyogenes and Candida albicans. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and total phenol content methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of ADL, ADR and CEL were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced foot pad oedema in 7-day old chicks. ADL, ADR and CEL demonstrated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/mL. All the extracts exhibited antioxidant activity with CEL demonstrating the highest with IC50 value of 146.9 μg/mL. The methanol extracts further demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory (p < 0.001) at the concentrations tested with 30 and 300 mg/kg body weight each extract showing better activity than the 100 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, phenols, tannins flavonoids, and triterpenoids in especially in ADR and CEL. The above findings may justify the medicinal uses of the plants.
Colocassia esculentus, Anchomanes difformis, Antimicrobial, Inflammation, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Biochemical pharmacology