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Special Issue Article Open Access
Solanum betaceum is a crop of great economic importance in Ecuador. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to diverse pathologies caused by bacteria, fungi, insects and nematodes. Several pesticides are currently used to prevent the plagues but their intensive and/or incorrect use can affect the development of the plants as well as the local environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the morphological changes on both the internal and external structure of the of Solanum betaceum pollen grains caused by three types of pesticides: chemical, biological and ecological. By using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, we have studied over 140 pollen grains exposed to these different pesticides. The results demonstrate that the pesticides influence the morphology and structure of the pollen grains, thus probably affecting the plant reproductive process.