alexa Abstract | Cardiovascular Response to Breath-Holding Explained by Changes of the Indices and their Dynamic Interactions
ISSN: 2329-6577

Biological Systems: Open Access
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Research Article Open Access


Background: Endogenous triggers such as voluntary breath-holding induce various cardiovascular responses typically including modification of blood CO2. During dynamic exercise these responses may have a negative impact on performance or may associate with cardiovascular risk subjects. Therefore, we hypothesized that voluntary breathing tests induce changes in cardiovascular (CV) oxygenation that lead to cardiovascular-functional changes, measured by a complex of integrated cardiovascular parameters and their interactions. So the aim of the study was to determine the impact of the voluntary breath-holding on changes and interplay of cardiac and peripheral parameters.

Method: 18 girls (average age: 23.4 ± 1.3 years) performed 2 voluntary breath-holdings to failure, with a 5 min rest. Cardiac functional parameters were recorded using the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis system “Kaunas-load”. The blood flow in the calf was determined by venous occlusion plethysmography. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used for non-invasive monitoring of oxygen saturation in tissues (StO2).

Results: Throughout the first breath-holding, heart rate (HR) increased from 89.5 ± 3.9 bpm to 107.6 ± 4.2 bpm (P<0.05). The ECG JT interval decreased at the onset of breath-holdings, the intervals ratio (JT/RR) increased (P<0.05), and the ST-segment depression was not altered significantly. Arterial blood flow (ABF) was reduced from 3.5 ± 0.47 mL/100 mL/min to 1.64 ± 0.38 mL/100 mL/min (P<0.05) at the end of the first breath-holding. The StO2 of the calf muscles decreased during both breath-holdings. Within 60 s of recovery time, StO2 exceeded baseline 9.5% (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Breath-holding impact changes in the systemic (central) circulation and caused significant peripheral changes, i.e., decrease in arterial blood flow and oxygen saturation. The most essential alteration occurred between the HR and arterial blood pressure (ABP) parameters. The strongest interaction observed between HR and ABP, and in calf muscles - between ABF and StO2.

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Author(s): Albinas Grunovas, Eugenijus Trinkunas, Alfonsas Buliuolis, Eurelija Venskaityte, Jonas Poderys and Kristina Poderiene


Breath-holding, Cardiovascular response, Dynamic interactions, Biology of Circulatory System, Cell Biology, Cell Biosicences, Cellular Biology Techniques, Circadian Biology, Transport System biology, Transport proteins

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