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Research Article Open Access
In order to fortify bone mineral density (BMD), and to prevent osteoporosis in the future, we investigated consumption of BMD-associated nutrients, and their food sources of pre-school Japanese children. Intakes of minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and vitamins (vitamin D, vitamin K, and vitamin C) were studied based on two weekdays dietary record surveys together with photos taken by 84 parents/caregivers of 5-year-old children. Food sources of relevant nutrients were identified according to contribution analyses, and potential associations of consumption of food sources with selected nutrients were investigated. We further conducted a multiple regression analysis to clarify food/ food groups providing calcium. Calcium consumption of approximately 40% of the subjects manifested an inadequacy, but intakes of other nutrients met the criteria of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Major food sources of calcium were milk and dairy products, green and yellow vegetables, soybeans, and other vegetables, and 50% of calcium was supplied by milk and dairy products. Other nutrients were provided by, various food/food items, including milk and dairy products, vegetables, soybeans, fruit, fish and shellfish, meat, eggs, potatoes, and algae. A multiple regression analysis also detected that milk and dairy products were top contributors of calcium intake. Because there was an obvious inadequate intake of calcium in Japanese children, they are advised to enhance consumption of calcium from milk and dairy products and BMD-related minerals and vitamins from green and yellow vegetables, and other vegetables at home. Pertinent nutrition education should be given to parents/caregivers for promotion of bone health.
Bone mineral density, Food/food item, Japanese children, Mineral, Vitamin, Nutrition, Vitamin B12, Trace Elements