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Research Article Open Access
The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes that diet plays an important role in the prevention of several non-infectious diseases. Unhealthy diets that include high intake of red and processed meat, sweets and desserts, potatoes, French fries, and refined grains) is associated with high plasma inflammatory biomarkers and a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), cancer and other chronic diseases. On the other hand, prudent dietary patterns such as Mediterranean diet as well as intake of fruit, vegetables, extra virgin olive oil, walnuts, legumes, whole grains, fish, cocoa, coffee, tea and wine is associated with a reduced plasma inflammatory biomarkers and a lower risk of CVD, T2D and other chronic diseases. In respect to nutrients, excessive intake of carbohydrates, saturated fat, trans- fatty acids, and omega- 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may activate the innate immune system, leading to an excessive production of pro inflammatory cytokines associated with a reduced synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, omega-3 PUFA, vitamin E and polyphenols could counter the effects of several inflammatory markers, decreasing, for example, the secretion of circulating and cellular factors involved in the atherosclerotic process. This review explains how healthy dietary patterns, foods and nutrients can reduce chronic inflammatory processes related to CVD, T2D, obesity or cancer and therefore be a good tool to prevent the development of these disorders.
Dietary pattern, Nutrition, Food, Mediterranean diet, Inflammation, Adhesion molecules, Cytokines, Dietary pattern, Nutrition, Food, Mediterranean diet, Inflammation, Adhesion molecules, Cytokines