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Research Article Open Access
Prevalence and distribution of coral disease were surveyed in three impacted sites at Red Sea coast. Prevalence were significant difference between studied reefs (ANOVA; F = 10.777, p < 0.0001). Sites closed to oil pollution (sites 1 and 2) displayed much higher levels of disease prevalence (25.3% ± 8.3 2 and 18.5% ± 3.1, respectively), than site 3 that close to landfilling (12.9% ± 2.1). Totally, 99coral braches, representing 20 species affected by at least 12 diseases. However, site 3 is characterized by the highest diversity (Simpson’s Index = 0.081) and highest percentage cover of life coral (35.2% ± 11.4) showed the lowest coral diseases number (3). In opposite, 10 coral diseases were recorded at site 1, and 8 coral diseases at site 2. While, the coral disease atramentous necrosis attained the highest prevalence percentage at sites 1 and 2 (3.2% and 4.5%, respectively), did not recorded at site 3. Sediment damage disease recorded the highest prevalence percentage at site 3 (5.1%), but did not record at sites 1 and 2. Diseases having lowest percentage cover were white band disease (sites 1 and 2) and white tips disease. The most commonly distributed disease (atramentous necrosis) infected five corals in site 1 and six corals in site 2. The least commonly distributed disease (white tips) infected only two corals (Acropora humilis and Acropora formosa) at site 3. The genus Porites at sites was particularly vulnerable to all diseases. However, Galaxea fasicularis at site 3 recorded the highest percent cover of sediment damage disease. Coral disease atramentous necrosis is always associated with Vermetidae predation and Tridacna boring. While, Drupels predation is associated with skeletal eroding band. Aggressive filamentous algal overgrowth is associated with sediment damage disease at site 3. The pathogenic bacterium isolated from the diseased Stylophora pistillata, Porites sp., and Acropora sp., referred to as Vibrio fischeri.
Coral, Disease prevalence, Distribution, Coral bacteria, Vibrio sp., Red sea, Aquatic Ecosystems, Aquaculture Nutrition, Deep Sea Fish, Fisheries Oceanography