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Review Article Open Access
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), namely neurodevelopmental disorders encompassing impairments in communication, social interactions and restricted stereotypical behaviors, induces a relatively high morbidity and mortality ratio (1/166) in modern children's life. One of the serious factors accounting for ASDs is the failure of the appropriate neuro-immune interaction. Although a relationship between altered immune responses and ASDs was firstly recognized nearly 40 years ago, only recently has new evidence started to shed light on the complex multifaceted communication between neuro-immune dysfunction and behavior in ASDs. Extensive alterations in immune function have now been described in both children and adults with ASDs, including ongoing inflammation in brain specimens, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in the Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF) and blood, increased presence of brain-specific auto-antibodies and altered immune cell function. Accumulated data both from clinical and lab research proposed the essential role of neuro-immune interaction during the pathogenesis of ASDs. Stem cells, which account for normal turnover and injury repair, might do great favors on ASDs due to their ability to give rise to new functional cells as a cell replacement source, paracrine secretion as trophic and cytokine contributor, immune modulator to balance the pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation as well as the inhibitor of chronic inflammation in ASDs brain, etc. Here in this review, we focus on the current development of stem cell administration in ASDs especially on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which proved to be the most plastic and efficient to interfere with ASDs neuro-immune interaction, moreover summarize the propbable mechanism and efficient therapeutic methods to treat ASDs withMSCs.
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Author(s): Gao Shane, Wang Juan, Wu Zeyang,Yuan Ping, Gao Fengjuan, Zhou fei, Cao Limei, Chen Xu, Zhu Hongwen and Xu Jun
Stem cells, Mesenchymal stem cells (Mscs), Autism spectrum disorders (Asds), Neuro-immune interaction, Stem Cells