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Research Article Open Access
In the present study, the impact of cadmium on embryonic development, morphology of eggs and newly hatched larvae of the Sepioteuthis lessoniana were described using the laboratory-reared specimens originating from Thondi, South East coast of India. The eggs were exposed to a concentration of 25 μg Cd/L for up to hatching. The average incubation period of the eggs varied between 18-23 days and the estimated mean temperatures were 18.6 ± 0.7°C for control, and 19.2 ± 1.1°C for Cd exposed groups. The results revealed that a total hatching rate of 99.2 ± 1.6% was achieved in control group and only 65.2 ± 8.8% in treated group. The deformities of the paralarvae were illustrated with light and scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, the present concentration exhibited toxic effects to the eggs and paralarvae of S. lessoniana. Therefore, Cd level as high as we used in this study could give good information on dangerous Cd levels on squid.
Squid, Cadmium, Paralarvae, Larval bioassay, Embryos, Heavy metals, Aquaculture Nutrition, Deep Sea Fish, Fisheries Oceanography