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Research Article Open Access
Background: Aquatic pollution by pesticidal application, in recent times, has gained much attention throughout the world, as they ultimately reach to the aquatic bodies through agricultural runoff or by aerial spraying and finally, impair the health status of fish. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological responses of Almix® herbicide on oxidative stress parameters in three Indian freshwater teleosts namely, Anabas testudineus, Heteropneustes fossilis and Oreochromis niloticus in natural condition.
Methods: Almix® herbicide was applied at field concentration (8 g/acre) used for rice cultivation to evaluate the oxidative stress responses in freshwater teleostean fishes for a period of 30 days. Special type of cage was installed in pond for culturing the fish species.
Results: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was increased significantly in all fish tissues (p<0.05) and highest enhancement was observed in spinal cord of A. testudineus, but minimum activity was observed in spinal cord of H. fossilis. Significant increased (p<0.05) lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in all tissues was observed after Almix® exposure; highest in muscle of O. niloticus and lowest in brain of H. fossilis. Catalase (CAT) activity also showed significant enhancement (p<0.05), and was maximum in gill of O. niloticus and minimum in liver of O. niloticus, while glutathione-Stransferase (GST) activity was reduced significantly in liver (p<0.05), and in particular, highest reduction was observed in case of H. fossilis. Protein content also showed significant reduction (p<0.05) after Almix® exposure in all fish tissues.
Conclusion: Long-term exposure of Almix® herbicide even at environment friendly concentration caused significant induction on oxidative stress parameters and these responses could be considered as useful tools for monitoring herbicidal contamination in freshwater ecosystem.
AlmixÂ®, Antioxidant, Oxidative stress, Rice field, Teleostean fish, Biochemical pharmacology