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Research Article Open Access
Objective: Endovenous foam sclerotherapy (EFS) is widely performed in the U.S, but there is a paucity of studies evaluating clinical predictors of outcomes, including biomarkers, in patients with venous disorders.
Methods: Patients undergoing EFS monotherapy for venous disorders were enrolled. Evaluation at baseline, 1 week, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks included clinical characteristics and biomarker analysis.
Results: 100 patients with venous disease were treated. At one week follow-up, 44% underwent a second injection. At 3 months, 100% of patients had obliteration of at least 80% of their affected veins, and 96% reported improved venous stasis symptoms. Adverse events were minor and deep vein thrombosis was found 4 patients at 3 months. D-dimer levels were significantly higher at week one, but returned to baseline by week 12; fibrin monomer decreased and PPL increased at one week and 3 months relative to baseline.
Conclusion: EFS monotherapy is effective in treating signs and symptoms of venous disease with few adverse effects. D-dimer levels are significantly associated with obliteration of venous segments suggesting an association between vein obliteration and activation of coagulation.
Varicose veins, Monotherapy, Injection, Thrombosis, Microparticles, Varicose veins, Monotherapy, Injection, Thrombosis, Microparticles