alexa Abstract | Factors Affecting Off-farm Employment of Small Farmers in Peshawar Valley
ISSN: 2151-6200

Arts and Social Sciences Journal
Open Access

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Research Article Open Access


The present study investigated the factors affecting off-farm employment of small farmers in Peshawar Valley. A sample of 201 small farmers was selected using random sampling technique and data were collected through a pretested interview schedule. This study focuses on two selected districts i.e. Peshawar, and Charsadda. Four villages were selected two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that the coefficients of household size, educational level of the sampled respondent, age of the sample small farmer, were positively related to the off-farm employment, while farm area operated was negatively but significantly related to off-farm employment. Similarly the small farm households of developed villages perform more off-farm employment than the small farm households of underdeveloped villages. This could be associated to the developed means of transport and communications, better education facilities, market facilities as well as availability of off-farm jobs locally. In developed villages of two districts, average per month income of sample small farmers from farm output was higher than the undeveloped villages of these districts due to the high sale price of vegetables grown on large area and more milk production. Similarly, in developed villages income from off-farm employment was more than undeveloped villages. Because large number of family labors of sample respondents were working on high paid jobs or employed else or selfemployed and thus contributed a good amount to their family’s income. The study recommends that unemployment in the agriculture sector is likely to increase with the decrease in the size of holdings. To generate off-farm employment opportunities agro based industries seems to potential area. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs.

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Author(s): Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Noor Paio Khan


Off-farm employment, Heteroscedasticity corrected model, Small farmers, Peshawar valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Developed and underdeveloped villages, Multicollinearity, White test, Community Decision Making, Library sciences, Culture, Literature, Arts, World History, Psychology, Archaeology, Literature Ratio, Social Media, Journalism, Humanities, Domestic Violence, Poverty, Unemployment, Urbanization, Civilization, Globalization, Child Labor, Terrorism

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