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Research Article Open Access
The numbers of contact chemosensillum on ventral side of fifth foretarsal segments of Japanese Papilio butterflies were determined by scanning electron microscope observation. P. bianor, P. helenus, P. protenor and P. memnon exhibited geographical diversity for this character among mainland Japan, Amami Islands, Okinawa Islands and Yaeyama Islands populations. This characteristic was useful for reconfirming the geographical variations proposed by the wing color patterns and genetic characteristics of each these species. This characteristic also uncovered hidden geographical variations and phylogenetic structures of P. machaon, P. xuthus, P. maackii, P. macilentus and that of P. memnon on mainland Japan and that of P. protenor on Okinawa Islands. Also discussed are possible causes for the apparent phylogeny disparities between this report and other previous studies including DNA analyses.
Contact chemosensillum, Lepidoptera, Papilio, Phylogeny, Biodiversity, Japanese, Biodiversity preservation, Ecology protection