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Case Report Open Access
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVBCL) represents a rare subtype of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma characterized by selective growth of neoplastic cells within the lumen of small and medium-sized vessels. The clinical spectrum is heterogeneous dominated by neurological and skin manifestations. Intra-vitam diagnosis still remains challenging and usually requires brain biopsy since no pathognomonic neuroradiological findings do exist for IVBCL. We report on the case of a 65-year old male patient presenting with multifocal neurological signs and symptoms including cognitive deficits, aphasia and paraparesis as leading features. Imaging findings were suggestive for cerebral vasculitis prompting initiation of steroid treatment. After initial stabilization the patient deteriorated in spite of systemic steroid treatment, developed severe sepsis and finally died from multi-organ failure. Histopathological findings revealed CD20 positive lymphoma cells in small- and middle-sized vessels of the cerebrum, the lungs and the skin diagnostic for IVBCL. This case should raise the alertness for consideration of IVBCL as a differential diagnosis resulting in early brain biopsy, if no etiology for CNS vasculitis is evident.
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma, CNS vasculitis, Brain biopsy, Cerebral ischemia, Medical case reports