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Review Article Open Access
It is imperative to assess the maternal lineage in order to achieve a broad picture of evolution, phylogenetic and genetic biodiversity within and among different breeds of livestock. In recent past, there has been a considerable advancement in sequencing of complete mammalian mtDNA molecules and their analysis. Most of the studies have focused on the mitochondrial D-loop region, the most variable part of mtDNA due to increased substitution rate than in the rest of the mtDNA genome which serves as a better genetic marker to assess the diversity. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) possesses several favorable characteristics, including large quantity in the cell, small genome size, haploid, maternal inheritance with extremely low probability of paternal leakage, higher mutation rate than nuclear DNA, and amenable to change mainly through mutation rather than recombination. All these features make mtDNA a useful and one of the most frequently used markers in molecular systematic and has been widely employed to address questions of genetic diversity, population structure and population evolution of animals including equines. Many native breeds of horses as well as ponies were assessed for their genetic diversity and ancestry on the basis of studies on mitochondrial DNA to address the questions of evolution along with breed development and conservation.
Biodiversity, Equines, Inheritance, Displacement loop, Replication, Biodiversity preservation, Species diversity