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Research Article Open Access
The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of individual differences in short term memory capacity (STM) for learning from film (digitized video) and analogue text in a natural learning environment. The results are based on a survey of 396 students on Bachelor's level (military cadets, teachers college and psychology majors). A short-term memory test battery was developed to measure different types and capacities of several individuals simultaneously in a classroom environment Alpha. Respondents were divided into two groups, one receiving a film presentation and one reading an analogue text (the film narrative). The subject matter was the formation of the Norwegian nation in the tenth and eleventh century (history subject at high school/college level). A knowledge test measuring the total learning outcome as well as details and interconnection (understandings/ context) was developed. In total, the results showed that texts gave the best learning outcome. Both film and text had an increased learning outcome for details and understandings in correlation with increased STM capacity, with the largest increase from low to medium capacity. Progressive capacity (successive) matters more than multicapacity (processing a lot concurrently). Non-verbal intelligence (Raven/RAPM) has an underlying general importance, but less important than the total STM capacity. Different types of capacity are more important than others depending on the presentation form and learning content. Visual sensory memory capacity for learning details in text was one of the types most clearly associated with learning outcome. This was explained by code-switching (representation transformation) during processing of information.
Multimedia learning, Short-term memory, Learning outcome, ICT-pedagogy and research methodology, Community Decision Making, Library sciences, Culture, Literature, Arts, World History, Psychology, Archaeology, Literature Ratio, Social Media, Journalism, Humanities, Domestic Violence, Poverty, Unemployment, Urbanization, Civilization, Globalization, Child Labor, Terrorism