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Research Article Open Access
The use of Braille by individuals who are blind or with visual impairment (VI) is often referred to as default, although the social dynamics of this population is not always intimately entwined with Braille. This study is a quantitative comparison on Braille literacy and auditory literacy to investigate if these two forms of captured information are equivalent to each other. Fifteen college graduates between the ages of 22 and 55 participated in the study: 5 of them were blind or with VI and preferred the use of Braille to access text material; 5 of them were blind or with VI and preferred to process textual material through audition; and 5 of them were individuals without VI and preferred to access textual material through visual print. The results showed that there were no differences among the three groups in their recall of propositions from the texts based upon their preferred method of accessing print (Braille, audition, or print), or in their recall of propositions from the text after having listened to an auditory rendition of an equivalent text. When the scores on the two tasks were compared with each other for individuals, there were no differences for either group of individuals who were blind or with VI, but the group of individuals without VI did better on recalling propositions when they read as opposed to when they listened to the text. Empirical suggestions for a more inclusive definition of literacy are provided to empower individuals with blindness and VI as well as other disabilities.
Visual impairment, Psychology, Anthropology, Child psychology, School Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Applied Psychology, Cognitive Mental Illness