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Research Article Open Access
Influence of neutron irradiation on reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel degradation are examined with reference to the possible reasons of the substantial experimental data scatter and furthermore -nonstandard (non-monotonous) and oscillatory embrittlement behavior. In our glance this phenomenon may be explained by presence of the wavelike recovering component in the embrittlement kinetics. We suppose that the main factor affecting steel anomalous embrittlement is fast neutron intensity (dose rate or flux), flux effect manifestation depends on state-of-the-art fluence level. At low fluencies radiation degradation has to exceed normative value, then approaches to normative meaning and finally became sub normative. Data on radiation damage change including through the ex-service RPVs taking into account chemical factor, fast neutron fluence and neutron flux were obtained and analyzed. In our opinion controversy in the estimation on neutron flux on radiation degradation impact may be explained by presence of the wavelike component in the embrittlement kinetics. Therefore flux effect manifestation depends on fluence level. At low fluencies radiation degradation has to exceed normative value, then approaches to normative meaning and finally became sub normative. As a result of dose rate effect manifestation peripheral RPV’s zones in some range of fluencies have to be damaged to a large extent than situated closely to core. Moreover as a hypothesis we suppose that at some stages of irradiation damaged metal have to be partially restored by irradiation i.e. neutron bombardment. Nascent during irradiation structure undergo occurring once or periodically transformation in a direction both degradation and recovery of the initial properties. According to our hypothesis at some stagem(s) of metal structure degradation neutron bombardment became recovering factor. Therefore self-recovering section of RPV steel radiation embrittlement kinetics is an indication of material smart behavior. As a result oscillation arise that intern lead to enhanced data scatter. Disclosure of the steel degradation oscillating is a sign of the steel structure cyclic self-recovery transformation as it take place in self-organization processes. This assumption has received support through the discovery of the similar “anomalous” data in scientific publications and by means of own additional experiments. Data obtained stimulate looking-for ways to management of the structural steel radiation stability (for example, by means of nano-structure modification for radiation defects annihilation intensification) for creation of the intelligent self-recovering material. Expected results: - radiation degradation theory and mechanisms development, - more adequate models of the radiation embrittlement elaboration, - methods and facility development for usage data of the accelerated materials irradiation for forecasting of their capacity for work in realistic (practical) circumstances of operation, - search of the ways for creating of the stable under neutron irradiation self-recovery smart materials.
Reactor pressure vessel, Steel, Self-recovering section,Embrittlement kinetics, Material smart behavior, Industrial Engineering,Materials Engineering,Metallic Materials (Ferrous & Nonferrous),Molecular Electronics, Nano Composites,Nano Materials,Brittle Materials, Ceramics Engineering, Composite Materials, Electronic Material Development, Porous Materials,Nano Particles, Biological Engineering,Nano Structures,Semiconductors, Polymeric Materials