alexa Abstract | The Bimodal Nature of Neurovascular Coupling: Slow Tonic and Rapid Phasic Responses are Separately Controlled by Specific Astrocyte Metabotropic and Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors
ISSN: 1747-0862

Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Mini Review Open Access


Neurons, by virtue of their complex and continuously changing signaling roles in brain, must be able to regulate access to energy in order to maintain their ability to communicate meaningful frequency-encoded information. This is accomplished by release of neurotransmitters to astrocytes that in turn signal the vascular system to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF). This process has been termed “neurovascular coupling” (NVC). It has also been observed that NVC is bimodal in that there are two separate mechanisms for control of CBF. One type is rapid [phasic] in response to changes in glutamatergic synaptic activity and release of glutamate (Glu), K+ and nitric oxide (NO). Uptake of Glu and K+ by astrocytes induces Ca2+ waves activating regional astrocyte syncytium have to liberate prostaglandins which in turn dilate capillaries by relaxing surrounding pericytes. The NO dilates arterioles by relaxing surrounding smooth muscle cells. These agents acting in concert sharply increase CBF within 1-3 seconds. The other type is slow [tonic] reflecting ongoing neuronal metabolic activity of all neuron types independent of changes in synaptic activity or astrocyte Ca2+ waves and eliciting modest oscillations in CBF in 10’s of seconds. In this review, we describe two neuronal signaling mechanisms that match the criteria for phasic and for tonic regulation of CBF. The difference is being the nature and source of the “Glu” released and of their targeted astrocyte receptors. Dependence on synaptic activity limits phasic responses to gray matter, but tonic responses can regulate CBF in both gray matter and white matter and may be the primary regulator of CBF in white matter.

To read the full article Peer-reviewed Article PDF image | Peer-reviewed Full Article image

Author(s): Baslow MH* and Guilfoyle DN


Brain energy metabolism, Cerebral blood flow, Glucose, Glutamate, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, Neurovascular coupling, Ionotropic, Metabotropic, Bioactive Compound, Cellular Medicine, Epigenomics, Gene Therapy, Genetic Engineering in Medicine, Genomic Medicine, Human Molecular Genetics, Medicinal Biotechnology, Metabolomics, Molecular Basis of Cancer, Molecular Basis of Obesity, Molecular Diagnosis, Molecular Genetic Test, Molecular Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Personalized Medicine

Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version