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Mini Review Open Access
Carotenoids are valuable pigments of commercial interest for various health benefits. There is rising demand for natural carotenoids from microorganisms, although the majority of industrially produced carotenoids are currently chemically synthesized. Rhodosporidium toruloides is oleaginous red yeast, which can produce large amounts of carotenoids and lipids simultaneously. It is also able to assimilate waste substrates as a carbon source. In this review we propose that Rhodosporidium toruloides's high lipid accumulating ability, is linked to its ability to also produce carotenoids. We provide details of the production and regulation of carotenoids and lipids biosynthesis in this yeast, which appear to be in sync. We attribute this to the fact that the simultaneous production of carotenoids and lipids is advantageous for the cells to maintain proper structure, function and membrane homeostasis. We also highlight the need for further developments in carotenoids extraction methods to advance microbial bioprocess technology. In addition, we provide information on recent carotenoids extraction technology using two phase media, developed in an engineered strain of Rhodosporidium toruloides. The in depth understanding of this yeast would help future developments to increase the yield and extraction of carotenoids and lipid.
Carotenoids, Lipid, Regulation, Extraction, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Bioactive Compound, Cellular Medicine, Epigenomics, Gene Therapy, Genetic Engineering in Medicine, Genomic Medicine, Human Molecular Genetics, Medicinal Biotechnology, Metabolomics, Molecular Basis of Cancer, Molecular Basis of Obesity, Molecular Diagnosis, Molecular Genetic Test, Molecular Medicine, Nuclear Medicine