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Case Report Open Access
Objective: To determine whether fondaparinux is effective in the treatment of thrombosis due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in cardiac surgery we reported three cases successfully treated with fondaparinux and withdrawal of all heparins.
Patients: All three patients were female and underwent heart valve replacement using cardiopulmonary bypass. Combined clinical criteria, "4T score" (Thrombocytopenia, Timing, Thrombosis, and absence of oTher explanations) and laboratory testing have been used for diagnosis. In all patients the point of heparin immunization occurred in the preoperative period, during the angiography when a standard dose of UFH (5,000 IU) was administered. Then, during cardiac surgery, patients received a high dose of UFH, and later LMWH was used. Thrombocytopenia occurring between postoperative days 5 and 10 was associated with severe venous end/or arterial thrombosis. Other causes of thrombocytopenia were excluded. Thus, there was a high clinical suspicion (4T's=7 points) of HIT, and while awaiting the results of laboratory tests all sources of heparin were removed and fondaparinux was administered at therapeutical doses. Clinical and cardio-pulmonary thrombosis imaging resolution and platelet recovery were achieved in all cases with no new thrombotic or haemorrhagic event.
Conclusions: Despite significant limitations exist regarding this retrospective evaluation, our data further support the observational evidence that fondaparinux is a safe and effective option in HITÃ¢ÂÂrelated thromboembolic complications with a good anticoagulant action and low risk of bleeding events.
HITT, Cardiac surgery, Heparin, Thrombosis, Fondaparinox, Cardiac surgery, Cardiac Arrest