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Case Report Open Access
Methylation at critical CpG sites on the expanded FMR1 gene is crucial for pathological manifestation of fragile X syndrome and fragile X-related disorders. Methylation status from blood, oral mucosa and root hair was analyzed with the FMR1 mPCR kit (Asuragen). Differential allele expression was studied by TP-PCR. Psychological and neurological explorations were performed in the probands. Patient II-1 of family 1 showed an extremely skewed X-chromosome inactivation of the normal allele in blood, oral mucosa cells and root hair. Analysis of differential expression of both alleles in blood showed the preferential expression of the expanded allele. Similarly, patient II-3 of family 2 showed an extremely skewed X-chromosome inactivation of the normal allele in blood, oral mucosa and root hair. Both females presented clinical features compatible with their skewed methylation toward the normal allele. Methylation analysis at critical CpG sites in the first FMR1 exon may predict clinical manifestations in carriers of premutation or full mutation. Analysis of differential expression of both alleles in women using TP-PCR could contribute to clarify the real impact of skewed methylation on the phenotype.
Fragile X syndrome and fragile X-related disorder, Methylation analysis, Epigenetics, Skewed X-chromosome inactivation, Differential allele expression, Bioactive Compound, Cellular Medicine, Epigenomics, Gene Therapy, Genetic Engineering in Medicine, Genomic Medicine, Human Molecular Genetics, Medicinal Biotechnology, Metabolomics, Molecular Basis of Cancer, Molecular Basis of Obesity, Molecular Diagnosis, Molecular Genetic Test, Molecular Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Personalized Medicine