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Hypertension if untreated causes organ damage such as eye. Hypertensive retinopathy is retinal vascular damage caused by hypertension. Acute BP elevation typically causes reversible vasoconstriction in retinal blood vessels, and hypertensive crisis may cause optic disk edema.Hypetensive retinopathy includes two disease processes. The acute effects of systemic arterial hypertension are a result of vasospasm to autoregulate perfusion. The chronic effects of hypertension are caused by arteriosclerosis and predispose patients to visual loss from vascular occlusions or macroaneurysms.