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Immobilization in soil science is the conversion of inorganic compounds to organic compounds by micro-organisms or plants, by which it is prevented from being accessible to plants. Immobilization is the opposite of mineralization. Immobilization of biocatalysts helps in their economic reuse and in the development of continuous bioprocesses. Biocatalysts can be immobilized either using the isolated enzymes or the whole cells. Immobilization often stabilizes structure of the enzymes, thereby allowing their applications even under harsh environmental conditions of pH, temperature and organic solvents, and thus enables their uses at high temperatures in non-aqueous enzymology, and in the fabrication of biosensor probes. In the future, development of techniques for the immobilization of multienzymes along with cofactor regeneration and retention system can be gainfully exploited in developing biochemical processes involving complex chemical conversions. The present review outlines some of the above aspects, and delineates the present status and future potentials of immobilized enzymes and nonviable cells in the emerging biotech industries.
Related journals of immobilization:
Nuclear waste form for the immobilization of plutonium, Journal of cement-based materials to radioactive waste immobilization, The immobilization of high level radioactive wastes using ceramics and glasses, Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques.