Academy of medical sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, Mis Irbina, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Received date: September 10, 2013; Accepted date: September 11, 2013; Published date: September 12, 2013
Citation: Masic I (2013) Science Editing-Writing and Publishing an Article. Anthropol 1:e112. doi:10.4172/2332-0915.1000e112
Copyright: © 2013 Masic I, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Writing a paper is a tedious job, however, following the established rules that work not only becomes much simpler, but also more accessible, which often results in the birth of the desire of researchers to write an article. Knowledge of the principles established by the process of scientific research demystifies the process. Decomposition process research into simpler trying to animate all those who can contribute to the advancement of medical science. Emphasizes the importance of pursuing the following five steps: identification of the main research questions, the selection of a scientific approach, study design and data collection, data analysis and presentation of the work
Writing a paper is a tedious job, however, following the established rules that work not only becomes much simpler, but also more accessible, which often results in the birth of the desire of researchers to write an article. Knowledge of the principles established by the process of scientific research demystifies the process. Decomposition process research into simpler trying to animate all those who can contribute to the advancement of medical science. Emphasizes the importance of pursuing the following five steps: identification of the main research questions, the selection of a scientific approach, study design and data collection, data analysis and presentation of the work [1,2]. The first step in the process is exploring a variety of themes as the focus of research. The first step has multiple segments, such as: choice of the major topics of research, literature review, focusing on the question of research, drafting support team. The second step in the research is to select the main access study. Access can be: review or meta-analysis, correlation (ecological) studies, case series, cross-sectional studies, case control studies, cohort studies, experimental studies or qualitative studies. The third step of the process of scientific research is the development and implementation of a detailed study plan. It is necessary to know how to create a protocol for primary, secondary and tertiary studies. Overview of developing proposals and flow. Primary studies require: a sample of the population, determination of the sample size, the development of questionnaires, surveys and interviews, additional assessment, ethical issues, ethical review and authorization. Secondary studies include existing data sets, and tertiary studies include a systematic review and meta-analysis. The fourth step in the research is the collection and analysis of data collected in the third step. Most researches require descriptive or comparative statistics. This step includes: management of data, descriptive statistics, comparative statistics and advanced biostatistics. The fifth and final step in the process is writing a research report and preparation for presentation and publication. In this step is described the structure of the article, quote, writing strategies, critical review, posters and presentations, choosing journals for publication, the process of teaching, examination and publication of the work and why publish? In order to discover something new, it should be: the average intelligence, the ability to analyze and synthesis, power of perception, desire, determination, creativity, ethics, responsibility and, most importantly, a pure intention to achieve a desired goal .
As mentioned the final and very important step in the process is writing a research report on the research and preparation for presentation and publication. In this step are described the structure of the article, quote, strategy, review, posters and presentations, choosing journals for publication, presentation process, reviewing and publishing work and why publish.
I-Introduction, M-Methods (or methods and materials), R-Results, A-and D-Discussion and Conclusion. Each article has its impact factor. Impact factor shows how much scientific paper, published in a magazine is quoted. Title of the scientific paper contains a brief description of the content. The title should accurately describe the content of the article. There are two types of titles: Indicative titletalks about the work that covers and informative title-convey the message of the article and recommended for beginners. A good title should be: a) short, b) correct, c) a clear, d) complete, e) informing, d) attractive. It should also include: characteristics of the article, showing what is most important in the work, use the same terms as in IMRAD not contain abbreviations, the possibility of being in form of question. It is necessary to specify the names of the authors and their affiliations. Abstract/Summary and Title can be written in two forms: Reference and Information. It can be written in author’s native language and English. The structure of the summary should look like this: introduction, goal, materials and methods, the location of the study, measuring the outcomes of the study, the results and conclusions. Summary is the distillate of which will be presented and should show: what has been done, what are the results, what the results means. Writing an introduction has its own rules: a clear definition of a the problem, why exactly this issue was explored, there is no need to explain what can be found in the textbooks, do not need to explain the terms of the title. Materials and Methods describe how the study was conducted and what are the characteristics of the sample (experimental group, controls and their properties). It is necessary to explain what is researched, asked, tested as follows: sampling (random, consecutive, and representative), the sample size (patient gender, age), the control group, and the criteria for exclusion from the study, the control groupif any. It should be described how the research was done: type of study (prospective, retrospective or combined), data collection (surveys, inventory or check-up), the technique of measuring results (operative treatment, laboratory tests). It is necessary to specify where the research was conducted.
Results are an important part of writing an article. The research results are usually most carefully read and should be a detailed plan, well-documented at the optimal dose. Discussion is a critical review of the data described in the results. The results should be compared with other findings and discuss the theoretical and practical research outcome. Conclusion should be short, clear and precise. It is necessary to: make the final statement of what logically follows from the results of the work, list only the most important and give the message. Good conclusions should not surprise attentive reader. The reader should get the impression that he himself had written it. References should be in accordance with the instructions provided by the journal, and otherwise used Vancouver or Harvard citation style . Example of Vancouver style citation: Masic I. How to Search, Write, Prepare and Publish the Scientific Papers in the Biomedical Journals. Acta Med Inform. Example Harvard style citation: Masic How to Search, Write, Prepare and Publish the Scientific Papers in the Biomedical Journals. At scientific meetings researcher has the opportunity to present their work. The rules that should be respected during the presentation are: clearly explain the purpose of the work, materials and methods, results and conclusions, it does not need to be said all that is written in the research, be concise and say all within the deadline for the presentation, be interesting and use modern tools. To write an article, we need to be honest. Intellectual dishonesty in science, unfortunately is not uncommon. The most common causes of intellectual dishonesty in science are: syndrome “publish or die”, selfishness, vanity, financial gain. Errors in science can be: unintentional and intentional (gray zone and fraud/deception). The worst forms of dishonesty in scientific research may be manifested as: forgery-when data do not reflect the actual findings in the study, fabrication-when data are completely fictitious, plagiarism-stealing other people’s ideas, concepts and texts and the presentation as if they are authors. According to the World Association of Medical Journals, plagiarism is to take six consecutive words, and according to Armstrong-plagiarism is to take consecutive 7-11 words or overlap of 30 letters . Plagiarism can be: directlyplagiarizing text, computer data, audio and video in full or partially, without notice that it is the work of someone else, mosaic-borrowing the ideas or opinions, a few words or phrases without quoting the author, self-plagiarism or re-use of personal works without citation. Scientific publication is a lasting legacy to review and critique. Work will need to be made in accordance with Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). Honesty in science is one of the foundations of knowledge. Even the smallest shadow of dishonesty in scientific work leads to a devaluation of work and loss of respect. In the fight against intellectual dishonesty in science education on ethics has a significant place. General Understanding of ethics in scientific research should be acquired through education and increase with time .