alexa Sensing Fat in the Diet: Implications for Obesity Outcomes | OMICS International
ISSN: 2155-9600
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Sensing Fat in the Diet: Implications for Obesity Outcomes

Sara C. Campbell1* and Juliet D. Gotthardt2

1Department of Exercise Science and Sports Studies, USA

2Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Sara C. Campbell
70 Lipman Drive, Loree Gym
Douglass Campus, Rutgers
The State University of New Jersey
New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
Tel: 848-932-7036
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: September 27, 2012; Accepted date: September 29, 2012; Published date: October 01, 2012

Citation: Campbell SC, Gotthardt JD (2012) Sensing Fat in the Diet: Implications for Obesity Outcomes. J Nutr Food Sci 2:e115. doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000e115

Copyright: © 2012 Campbell SC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences


Bacteria are associated with diseases; this has been particularly true recently with the discovery that changes in the gut bacteria (microbiome) are associated with energy harvesting and obesity. The increase in firmicutes and decrease in bacteriodetes have sparked massive interest in attempting to understand how diets high in fat cause this change and what implications this has for health [1-3]. For many years bacteria were thought to be autonomous organisms, until the idea of quorum sensing was proposed given rise to the idea that cells (including bacteria) can exchange information using small molecules that bind sensory proteins affecting, directly or indirectly, transcription and translation. This system illustrates that the environment in which the bacteria live will dictate gene expression which underlie various biological pathways. In essence, quorum sensing enables bacterial populations to collectively create an environment that enhances access to nutrients, promote defense mechanisms against invaders and facilitate survival. The research supporting changes in the microbiome in response to high fat feedings suggests that there may be changes in the nutrient gradient which are sensed by the quorum (bacteria) causing activation of pathways associated with obesity. Implications of this notion are unstudied and are of particular interest in our lab.

We are all acutely aware of the impacts of obesity, including increased adiposity and insulin resistance and diabetes. Some of the mechanisms associated with these problems are very well-defined while others are not. The exciting area of the gut microbiome has received a lot of attention and researchers are providing novel insights to implications as a result of these changes. There are however, several questions that still need to be answered. This editorial will briefly summarize what is known about changes in the gut and its microbiome and future directions in this area.

The gastrointestinal (GI) system represents a major route for systemic exposure to both healthy, e.g. carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins and minerals, and unhealthy molecules, e.g., toxins and proinflammatory particles (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). The integrity of the GI barrier is critical to restrict unwanted substances from entering systemic circulation. Conversely loss of intestinal barrier integrity leads to increased permeability and diffusion of restricted molecules from the intestinal lumen to the blood. Research has supported that obesity increases intestinal permeability of LPS [4]. LPS is an endotoxin known to activate many transcription factors implicated in enhancing the inflammatory responses. Moreover, it was recently demonstrated that LPS plasma concentrations increase in response to high fat diets, which is likely due to the changes in intestinal integrity [5,6]. Since LPS is fat-soluble it has been concluded that the LPS must come from the gut and is suspected to perpetuate the obesogenic environment within the body [5,7-9].

An area receiving a lot of attention is how LPS exerts its actions, as this may provide clues as to the pathophysiology of the inflammatory response. It has been suggested that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a key modulator in the cross-talk between inflammatory and metabolic pathways. TLR4 is an essential receptor, along with its adaptor protein CD14, for the recognition of LPS [10]. The activation of pro-inflammatory response occurs when LPS binds to its receptor resulting in production of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and/or upregulation of downstream inflammatory pathways including IκB kinase (IKKβ)/ nuclear factor kappaB (NFκB) [11]. The upregulation of the IKKβ/ NFκB pathway causes additional release of tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 further promoting the inflammatory response. Interventions therefore aimed at reducing LPS in plasma will have a potent impact on the overall systemic inflammatory response. To date it is known that both acute, chronic and resistance exercise can reduce plasma LPS levels [10], reduce TLR4 and CD14 expression [12] as well as some downstream targets including IKKβ [10]. Further investigation is needed to examine how exercise may impact the bacterial quorum and if this plays a role in altering intestinal barrier integrity.

LPS in the systemic circulation not only triggers the inflammatory response, but can also cause significant changes to amino acid pools, including lysine, threonine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and valine, a branched chain amino acid (BCAA) (13). While there does seem to be a link between BCAA pools in vivo and increased incidence of obesity and diabetes [14] , complete understanding of the mechanisms associated with these changes and how they are precipitated needs to be examined. BCAAs are intimately involved with the intermediates within the Krebs cycle so that energy can be made, disruptions to this cycle may adversely influence energy metabolism, further disrupting an already malfunctioned system.

This editorial highlights the impacts high fat diets have on the intestinal integrity and the consequences which increased LPS permeability to the systemic circulation and subsequent activation of pro-inflammatory cascades. However, it is not known whether LPS production in the gut increases as a result of the gut bacteria being overexposed to high fat diets. Im et al. [15] showed that intentional exposure of the colon to LPS elicited inflammation of the small intestine remotely and this was associated with enhanced inflammatory cytokine production and epithelial damage. However, it is unknown if and how fat in the diet, leads to disruption of epithelial integrity and by which pathways this is occurring through. Using quorum sensing, we possess a tool by which bacterial communications can be analyzed and what changes in transcription and translation occur as a result of this communication. These changes can hopefully provide information about links to diet and gut bacteria that have yet to be explored.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

  • 15th International Conference on Clinical Nutrition
    May 24-26, 2018 Vienna, Austria
  • 21st World Congress on Nutrition & Food Sciences
    July 09-10, 2018 Sydney, Australia
  • World Congress on Nutraceuticals and Natural Medicine
    July 18-19, 2018, Czech Republic, Prague Prague, Czech Republic
  • 7th International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics, Functional and Baby Foods
    July 18-19, 2018, Czech Republic, Prague Prague, Czech Republic
  • 14th International Congress on Advances in Natural Medicines, Nutraceuticals & Neurocognition
    July 19-20, 2018 London, UK
  • 28th World Nutrition Congress
    August 9- 10 2018 Manila, Philippines
  • 6th International Conference on Sports Nutrition & Fitness
    August 06-07, 2018 Tokyo, Japan
  • 27th World Congress on Diet, Nutrition and Obesity
    September 7- 8, 2018 Auckland, Newzealand
  • 17th World Congress on Nutrition and Food Chemistry
    September 13-15, 2018 London, UK
  • 8th Annual Congress on Probiotics & Functional Foods
    September 24-25, 2018 Tokyo, Japan

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11555
  • [From(publication date):
    October-2012 - Apr 24, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7785
  • PDF downloads : 3770

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version