alexa Sensory Quality of Fermented Sausages as Influenced by Different Combined Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation during Refrigerated Storage | OMICS International
ISSN: 2157-7110
Journal of Food Processing & Technology

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Sensory Quality of Fermented Sausages as Influenced by Different Combined Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation during Refrigerated Storage

Saghir Ahmad* and Baher Amer
Department of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, India
Corresponding Author : Ahmad
Department of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh-202002, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received September 24, 2012; Accepted November 29, 2012; Published December 07, 2012
Citation: Ahmad S, Amer B (2013) Sensory Quality of Fermented Sausages as Influenced by Different Combined Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation during Refrigerated Storage. J Food Process Technol 4:202. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000202
Copyright: © 2013 Ahmad S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effect of different culture combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation on sensory properties of semi dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage 2°C. Four different species of lactic acid bacteria had abeen used as a starter cultures in six different combinations, cultures including mixture of Lactobacillus brevis+lactobacillus plantarum (S1), L.  brevis+Lactococcus lactis ssp. (S2), L. plantarum+L. lactis ssp. (S3), L. brevis+Streptomyces griseus ssp. (S4), L. plantarum+S. griseus ssp. (S5) and L. lactis ssp+S. griseus ssp. (S6). Semi dry fermented sausages (SDFS) were prepared using two levels of fat viz. 20% and 25% respectively. Sensory attributes such as color, flavor, texture, taste, and juiciness of the fermented sausages samples were evaluated by Hedonic rating test. All samples of buffalo meat semi dry fermented sausages were highly acceptable as reported by panelist during sensory evaluation. The score values of all attributes (colour, flavour, texture, taste, and juiciness) were found in the range of 8-9, which represented either like very much or like extremely conditions. Increasing levels of fat from 20% to 25% improved flavour, texture, taste, and  juiciness of semi dried fermented sausages. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) decreased the score values of all sensory attributes.

Keywords
Fermented sausages; Sensory properties; Lactic acid bacteria; Starter cultures; Texture and Juiciness
Introduction
Most of the meat products produced today is based on traditional practices. These products are attractive to consumers because they offer a wide variety of colors, flavors, and textures. There are many factors affecting the sensory characteristics of meat products such as the meats used as raw materials (genetic type, feed. age. sex, and rearing system), microorganisms selected as microbial starters for the fermentation and type of processing technologies (cooking, drying, ripening, smoking, etc.) [1]. In fermented meat products, like dry fermented sausages, starter proteases play an important role on proteolysis. Proteolysis contributes to the consistency of the product by the degradation of the myofibrillar structure and to its taste through the accumulation of small peptides and free amino acids. These amino acids directly contribute to flavor or indirectly as precursors of flavor compounds through amino acid degradation reactions [2]. The extent of proteolysis is variable and mainly depends on the raw materials and processing conditions and, in the case of fermented meats, the type of starters added [1].
There are many specific flavors due to the high number of available aromatic plants such as pepper, paprika, mustard, nutmeg, cloves, oregano, rosemary, thyme, garlic, onion, and so on. These compounds have a high impact on the aroma of fermented products [3].
The practice of smoking of meat and meat products produces a drying effect, imparts desirable flavor and color of the meat and protects the meat product from rancidity and spoilage [4]. Nowadays, meat smoking consist on the addition of vaporous or liquid smoke to meat or meat products [5]. The major contribution of liquid smoke to the headspace of meat products are phenols, cyclopentenones and furans [6].
The bacteria which play a significant role and commonly found in fermented sausages are lactic acid bacteria [7]. These microorganisms are used as starter cultures, promoting meat fermentation [8]. Lactic acid bacteria improve safety and stability of the product, enhance colour stability, prevent rancidity and release various aromatic substances [7-10].
Materials and Methods
Samples preparation
Meat samples collected from the local meat shop in the study were from buffaloes slaughtered according to traditional halal method at slaughter house of Municipal Corporation of Aligarh. The animals were kept in lairage for a period of 18-20 hours. Meat samples from round portion (biceps fermoris muscle) of 2.5, 3 and 3.5 years aged female carcasses of good finish were obtained from meat shop within 4 hr of slaughter. The meat chunks were packed in combination film packaging and brought to the laboratory with in 20 min buffalo fat were also packed in combination film packaging and brought to the laboratory. Other non-meat ingredients like spices, salt, condiments and combination film were procured from the local market. This fibrous casing (35 mm dia.) was procured from PRS technologies, India. The meat and fat were kept inside ultra low temperature cabinet (Yarco, India) at 2°C.
Fermented sausages were prepared from comminuted mixture of meat; fat salt spices and sugar using bacterial culture there allowed to undergo fermentation under strict conditions of temperature and humidity. Two different lots of semi dry fermented sausages were conducted containing two levels of fat 20% and 25%. The composition of fermented sausages was kept: meat (2 kg), fat (400 and 500 g for 20 and 25% fat samples respectively), mix spices (24 g), chilli powder (12 g), condiments (40 g), salt (50 g), sugar (20 g), dextrose (10 g), sodium ascorbate (1000 mg),mono sodium glutamate (2 g), ice (150 g) and 10 ml of starter culture. The buffalo meat and fat were ground on a grinder (PRS Technologies, India). Then buffalo meat was first chopped and then fat and other non-meat ingredients were added, salt was added at very end of chopping. Bowel cutter (PRS Technologies, India) was used for chopping of meat and other ingredients. Spices, condiment and mono sodium glutamate (MSG) were added to contribute flavor in semi dry sausages. Well mixed mass was further added with different combined culture and finally placed in a shallow pan and held at 15°C, 85% relative humidity to complete fermentation. The completion of fermentation was indicated by drop in pH of the mixture. After the completion of fermentation the mixture was stuffed into the casing by using the sausage filler machine. Stuffing into fibrous casing (35 mm dia.) was done firmly and carefully to exclude the air inside the casing, which might discolor the meat mix and reduce the shelf life of the sausages. Semi dry fermented sausages then were smoked at temperature 40-60°C for 4 hours to improve flavor and to inhibit bacterial development. The smoked sausages were dried at 20°C and relative humidity 70%. The drying was done at optimum speed, precautions were taken to ensure that sausages neither dried too fast nor retained surface moisture and become sticky. At the end, sausages samples were packed in combination film under atmosphere packaging and stored at refrigerated temperature of 2°C for further study.
Evaluation of sensory characteristics
Sensory attributes such as colour, flavor, texture, taste, and juiciness of the fermented sausages samples were evaluated as recommended by Ranganna [11] by Hedonic rating test. A trained panel consisting of 10 expert judges was selected to evaluate the samples through properly planned experiments. The panelists were selected from the stuff and students of Department of Post Harvest Engg. and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Aligarh. Samples were served to the panelists and they were asked to rate the acceptability of the product through sense of organs. Different attributes viz. colour, flavor, texture, taste, mouth feel and juiciness of the fermented sausages were rated on the basis of 9 points of the hedonic scale ranging from 1 (extremely dislike) to 9 (extremely like). A test Performa was also made and supplied to the panelists at the time of evaluation. It is given here, 9=like extremely, 8=like very much, 7=like moderately, 6=like slightly, 5=neither like nor dislike, 4=Dislike slightly, 3=Dislike moderately, 2=Dislike very much, 1=Dislike extremely.
Statistical analysis
Data obtained from experimental observation (n=10), were subjected to analysis of variance (Two ways ANOVA). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Version 10.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) as described by Field [12].
Result and Discussion
Colour
The fermented sausages had bright red colour after smoking and subsequent drying. All the fresh fermented sausages samples with 20% and 25% fat had the score values of colour between ‘8’ and ‘9’ (Tables 1 and 2). It represented condition between liked very much and liked extremely. Different cultures of LAB fermentation did not significantly (p<0.05) affect the colour score values of fresh semi dried fermented sausages in both levels of fat. But the interaction between cultures and storage period significantly (p<0.05) affected the colour score values. At the end storage period, there was a significant effect of different cultures on the colour score values. Barbut [13] reported that adding LAB did not cause any color change prior to fermentation, but resulted in a significant change after fermentation. The fact that fermentation makes the product more red is well-known to meat processors, who sometimes use visual appearance to assess the progress of the fermentation process. This is usually done with some sort of subjective firmness evaluation (e.g., assessing firmness by touching/squeezing the product inside the casings) [13]. As mentioned before, texture and color do change when the pH is lowered, as some of the proteins start to coagulate [14,15]. During refrigerated storage the score values of colour significantly (p<0.05) decreased. After 120 days of storage, the highest scores for colour were given for samples inoculated with L. brevis+L. plantarum. Zanardi et al. [16] also found that slices of Milano-type sausages packed under vacuum showed a very marked increase in brown color from 53 to 60 days during storage. The decline in colour scores during storage was due to lipid oxidation and subsequent oxidized compounds reacting with amino acids during non-enzymatic browning of the product [17]. There was no noticeable effect for increasing the levels of fat on the colour score values of SDFS. Similarly, Ahmad [18]; Ahmad and Srivastava [19]; Liaquati and Srivastava [20] reported that different levels of fat did not significantly (p<0.05) affect the colour score values. While, Papadima and Bloukas [21] reported that storage time and fat level significantly affected the redness of Greek sausages. Figures 1 and 2 represent the linear regression of colour score values during storage period. The equation of regression line and correlation coefficients are shown on the regression graph. The negative sign in the coefficients of x explains that there was constant decrease of colour score values during storage period. The values of R2 for all samples at two different levels of fat were in between 0.9489-0.9944, which shows correlations are almost perfect and the graph may be approximated to a straight line.
Flavour
The characteristic flavour of fermented sausages mainly originates from the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins through the action of microbial and endogenous meat enzymes [22]. The development of flavor is also influenced by several variables such as product formulation (especially spices), processing condition, and starter culture [23-25]. In the present study, all the fresh fermented sausages samples with 20% and 25% fat had the score values of flavour between ‘8’ and ‘9’. Tables 3 and 4 represent the results of evaluation of flavour of semi dried fermented sausages incorporated with 20% and 25% fat during refrigerated storage. Different cultures of LAB fermentation did not significantly (p<0.05) affect the flavour score values of fresh semi dried fermented sausages in both levels of fat. But the interaction between cultures and storage period significantly (p<0.05) affected the flavour score values. At the end storage period, there was a noticeable effect of different cultures on the flavour score values. After 120 days of storage, the highest scores for flavour were given for samples inoculated with L. brevis+L. plantarum. Vural [26] reported that sensory evaluations indicated that sausages produced with starter cultures, especially P. acidilactici, had better scores for appearance, color, flavor and general acceptability. This is in agreement with the reports of Berdague et al. [27], and Witthuhn et al. [28], who showed that the starter culture can be decisive for the sensory properties of the final product, since the ability of microorganisms to degrade amino acids to aroma compounds is highly strain dependent. The enzymatic and chemical phenomena involved in flavour generation include carbohydrate fermentation, lipolylis, proteolysis, lipid oxidation and amino acid catabolism. The biochemical changes can be accelerated by the exogenous addition of different microorganisms and/or enzymes to the initial formulation [29,30,25]. Also, the addition of Lactococcus lactis ssp. could result in a higher amount of free amino acids [31]. L. plantarum CRL 681 acidogenic metabolism not only assured hygienic quality of fermented sausages but increased free amino acids and peptides released from meat proteins [32]. The free and total amino acid increase indicates that Staphylococcus carnosus contributed to slightly greater enzymatic degradation of protein comparing with Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus xylosus when included in a starter culture inoculums in fermented sausage manufacturing [33]. During refrigerated storage the score values of flavour significantly (p<0.05) decreased. The means score values of flavour in 120th day of storage were in between of 5.4 and 6.4 for all samples. Kandeepan and Biswas [34] reported that the flavour scores of buffalo meat decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in storage period. Karthikeyan et al. [35] reported that the steep decline in flavour scores of caprine keema was attributed to the liberation of fatty acids [36], oxidation of fat [37] and increased microbial load [38]. However increasing levels of fat constantly increased the score values of flavour. This is in agreement with the results of Ahmad [18]; Ahmad and Srivastava [19] and Liaquati and Srivastava [20]. Figures 3 and 4 represent the linear regression of flavour score values of SDFS incorporated with 20% and 25% fat respectively during storage period. The equation of regression line and correlation coefficients are shown on the regression graph. The negative sign in the coefficients of x explains that there was constant decrease of flavour score values during storage period. The values of R2 for all samples at two different levels of fat were in between 0.918- 0.9945, which shows correlations are almost perfect and the graph may be approximated to a straight line.
Texture
Texture is a predominant element of the quality and acceptability of foods. It is perceived from sensory impressions of the physical properties of a material, its nature, composition and behaviour on deformation received from senses of touch, sight and hearing [39]. Tables 5 and 6 represent the results of evaluation of texture of semi dried fermented sausages during refrigerated storage incorporated with 20% and 25% fat. The samples inoculated with L. brevis+S. griseus ssp. received the highest score of 8.5 and 8.7 for 20% and 25% fat respectively. Whereas the samples inoculated with L. plantarum+L. lactis ssp. were given the lowest scores of 8.1 and 8.2. Different cultures of LAB fermentation significantly (p<0.05) affect the texture score values of semi dried fermented sausages in both levels of fat. The dominating lactic acid bacteria are known to produce acids, such as lactic, acetic and formic acids, the level of which, depending on genus, species and growth conditions, cause a decrease in pH [40]. As mentioned before, texture and color do change when the pH is lowered, as some of the proteins start to coagulate [14,15]. Lower pH in cooked salami-type sausages resulted in more disruption of protein coagulates formed during heating [41]. In this study, it had been noticed that there was a significant difference of pH between samples due to different starter cultures which lead to significant difference in texture score values. Similar results had been reported by Garcia et al. [42] which indicated that different mould strains significantly affected the texture score values of dry fermented sausages. During refrigerated storage (2°C) the score values of texture of SDFS incorporated with 20% and 25% fat significantly (p<0.05) decreased. The means score values of texture on 120th day of storage were in between of 5.3 and 6.5 for all samples. Kandeepan et al. [43], reported that ambient storage significantly (p<0.05) decreased the score values of texture of buffalo meat keema. It should be noted that the changes of other chemical contents such as protein, moisture, fat collagen and pH value during storage might result in the change of texture of cooked sausage [44]. The significant decrease in texture during storage may be was due to changes in the disulphide bond and contents of amino acid [37]. Increasing levels of fat constantly improved the score values of texture. This is in agreement with the results of Ahmad [18], Ahmad and Srivastava [19] and Liaquati and Srivastava [20]. The values of R2 for all samples at two different levels of fat were in between 0.9702- 0.9942, which shows correlations are almost perfect and the graph may be approximated to a straight line (Figures 5 and 6).
Taste
Tables 7 and 8 represent the results of evaluation of taste of semi dried fermented sausages incorporated with 20% and 25% fat during refrigerated storage. All the fresh fermented sausages samples with 20% and 25% fat had the score values of taste between ‘8’ and ‘9’. It represented condition between liked very much and liked extremely. Different cultures of LAB fermentation did not significantly (p<0.05) affect the taste score values of fresh semi dried fermented sausages in both levels of fat. But the interaction between cultures and storage period significantly (p<0.05) affected the taste score values. At the end storage period, there was a significant effect of different cultures on the taste score values. This might be due different pH and TBA number values. Similarly, Nassu et al. [45], reported that the use of different starter cultures in processing of goat meat fermented sausages has no significant effect (p<0.05) on taste and another sensory attributes in fresh conditions.While, Garcia et al. [42], reported that different mould strains significantly affected the taste score values of dry fermented sausages. Garcia et al. [42], found that the batch inoculated with P. nalgiovense allocated the lowest scores (4.8), while the batches inoculated with Mucor and Penicillium-3 were the best evaluated (7.4 and 7.1 respectively). During refrigerated storage (2°C) the score values of taste significantly (p<0.05) decreased. Similarly, Balev et al. [46], reported that sensory evaluated taste decreased steadily during chilled storage. However, the means score values of taste on 120th day of storage were in between of 5.7 and 7.2 for all samples. Samples inoculated with L. brevis + L. plantarum significantly (p<0.05) scored the highest value for taste among all samples (7.1 and 7.2) for 20% and 25% fat respectively. While lowest score values were given to the sample inoculated with L. plantarum+S. griseus ssp. Increasing fat levels improved the score values of taste of all samples. This is in agreement with Muguerza et al. [47], who have reported that low fat fermented sausages had lower taste score values, while Mendoza et al. [48], reported that low fat fermented sausages had higher taste score values.
Figures 7 and 8 represent the linear regression of taste score values of semi dried fermented sausages incorporated with 20% and 25% fat during storage period. The equation of regression line and correlation coefficients are shown on the regression graph. The negative sign in the coefficients of x explains that there was constant decrease of flavour score values during storage period. The values of R2 for samples produced with 20% fat were in the range of 0.9532-0.9882, while it was in the range of 0.9489-0.9938 for 25% fat incorporation. The values of R2 show correlations are almost perfect and the graph may be approximated to a straight line.
Juiciness
Tables 9 and 10 represent the results of evaluation of juiciness of semi dried fermented sausages incorporated with 20% and 25% fat during refrigerated storage. All the fresh fermented sausages samples with 20% and 25% fat had the score values of juiciness between ‘8’ and ‘9’. It represented condition between liked very much and liked extremely. Different cultures of LAB fermentation did not significantly (p<0.05) affect the juiciness score values of fresh semi dried fermented sausages in both levels of fat. But the interaction between cultures and storage period significantly (p<0.05) affected the juiciness score values. At the end storage period, there was a significant effect of different cultures on the juiciness score values. During refrigerated storage (2°C) the score values of juiciness significantly (p<0.05) decreased due to the loss of moisture content during refrigerated storage. However, the means score values of juiciness on 120th day of storage were in between of 5.4 and 6.3 for all samples. Increasing fat levels improved the score values of juiciness of all samples. Mendoza et al. [48] who have reported that low fat fermented sausages had lower juiciness score values. This is in agreement with the results of Ahmad [18], Ahmad and Srivastava [19] and Liaquati and Srivastava [20].
Figures 9 and 10 represent the linear regression of juiciness score values of semi dried fermented sausages incorporated with 20% and 25% fat during storage period. The equation of regression line and correlation coefficients are shown on the regression graph. The negative sign in the coefficients of x explains that there was constant decrease of juiciness score values during storage period. The values of R2 for all samples at two different levels of fat were in between 0.9447-0.9929, which shows correlations are almost perfect and the graph may be approximated to a straight line.
Conclusion
All samples of buffalo meat semi dry fermented sausages were highly acceptable as reported by panelist during sensory evaluation. Refrigerated storage decreased the sensory score values of all attribute. Increasing levels of fat from 20% to 25% improved flavour, texture, taste, and juiciness of semi dried fermented sausages.
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