Adnexal tumors are growths that form on the organs and connective tissues around the uterus in women. Adnexal tumors are most often noncancerous (benign), but they can be cancerous (malignant).Adnexal tumors occur in the Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Connective tissue around the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of adnexal tumors involves a careful physical exam, imaging tests and, sometimes, surgery. Treatment for adnexal tumors depends on the specific location and types of cells involved.
The pathophysiology is not well understood for most adnexal masses; however, some theories have been proposed. Functional cysts may be the result of variation in normal follicle formation. Mature cystic teratoma may be the result of abnormal germ cell proliferation. Endometriomas are thought to result from retrograde menstruation or coelomic metaplasia. The exact cause of epithelial neoplasms is unknown, but recent studies have suggested a complex series of molecular genetic changes is involved.
Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in females and its ASR stands at 60/ 100 000 annually. The highest incidence is seen in Chinese women, followed by Malays and Indians, with ASRs of 60.8, 58.7 and 53.8 per 100 000, respectively. Unfortunately, the incidence has continued to increase over the last 40 years, tripling from 20/100 000 in 1968–72 to its current level .This charts a trajectory of more than 3% increase annually and ∼5.7% in the pre-menopausal cohort, resulting in Singapore women having the highest breast cancer incidence rates in Asia .The lifetime risk for a Singaporean woman is 6.12%, with 1 in 16 females developing breast cancer. As this trend continues, it will not be long before the rates match those seen in Western countries .Most of these cases are diagnosed in the 55–59 age group and a pilot breast cancer screening project was conducted from 1994 to 97 that showed that breast screening is just as effective in an Asian population.