Ampullary cancer is a malignant tumor that arises from the Ampulla of Vater, the last centimeter of the common bile duct as it passes through the duodenum, the first section of the intestine. All pancreatic and biliary secretions enter the duodenum through the Ampulla of Vater.The diagnostic tests used to for ampullary cancer are similar to those for pancreatic cancer; endoscopy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are frequently used to make the diagnosis.
The standard treatment for ampullary cancer is a pylorus preserving Whipple operation.Five year survival for ampullary tumors is excellent if the tumor does not invade the adjacent pancreas.The procedure is performed using endoscopic instruments. In some centers, the long, narrow cameras and tools used to perform the procedure are inserted through small incisions (cuts) in the abdomen. This makes the procedure minimally invasive (there's not a lot of cutting and bleeding) and improves the chances of recovering from the surgery. However, the most common way to perform the Whipple procedure is with an open abdomen.
In the Far East, Korea demonstrated highly significant increasing mortality trends for both sexes [men (4.8–7.8), p<0.001; women (2.5–4), p<0.01), while women in Japan showed an increasing trend that was significant (p<0.05). In France, a trend towards increasing mortality was observed among women (p<0.001). An upward mortality trend in women achieving significance was also seen in Malta, Bulgaria, Greece, and Germany (p<0.05). A decline in mortality was seen in both sexes only in Canada [men (7.5–6.4), women (5.9–5); p<0.01], while for men there was a downward trend noticeable in Ireland, Switzerland, Austria, the UK, and Poland [p<0.05].