Deep vein thrombosis, or deep venous thrombosis, (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a deep vein, predominantly in the legs. Non-specific signs may include pain, swelling, redness, warmness, and engorged superficial veins. DVT often develops in the calf veins and "grows" in the direction of venous flow, towards the heart. When DVT does not grow; it can be cleared naturally and dissolved into the blood (fibrinolysis).
All patients with symptomatic DVT confirmed by duplex ultrasound studies from January 1996 to December 1997 were retrospectively studied. Their case notes were searched for a record of predisposing risk factors. Ultrasound imaging indicated acute thrombosis in 320 patients (82.5%), and previous, but not acute thrombosis in 68 patients (17.5%). The overall frequency rate of acute DVTs was 15.8 per 10,000 hospital admissions. The average age of patients with acute thrombosis was 58.2 years. 9.2% of patients developed pulmonary embolism (PE). Their most frequently recorded clinical predispositions were immobilisation (67%), malignancy (33%) and recent surgery (30%). One hundred and thirty patients were tested for antithrombin, protein C or protein S deficiency, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibody and 45 (35%) were found to have at least 1 positive result.
The basic treatments for the disease are Anticoagulation, which prevents further coagulation, home treatment, stockings, walking, and repeat imaging and IVC filters, thrombolysis, and thrombectomy. The aims of the physicians are to prevent clot becoming larger, clot becoming lose and traveling to lungs, new clot formation and Post thrombotic syndrome.
On Disease The current major research on the diseases are efficacy of low doses of heparin for the prevention of the DVT after a major surgery, accuracy of the clinical assessment for DVT, Decreased plasma levels of activated factor VII in patients with deep vein thrombosis etc.