Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes complication that affects eyes. It is caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina). It can cause blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the damage to the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina. They leak blood and other fluids that cause swelling of retinal tissue and clouding of vision. This condition usually affects both eyes. Diabetic retinopathy often has no early warning signs
Symptoms of diabetic retinopathy
In the initial stage it does not show any symptoms. Diabetic retinopathy often has no early warning signs. The symptoms are sudden vision loss, seeing spots or floaters in your field of vision, Blurred vision, having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision, Difficulty seeing well at night times
There is no cure for diabetic retinopathy. But laser treatment is usually very effective at preventing vision loss laser. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy usually does not improve vision; the therapy is designed to prevent further vision loss. Surgical removal of the vitreous gel may also help improve vision if the retina has not been severely damaged. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy is often very effective in preventing, delaying, or reducing vision loss. But it is not a cure for the disease.
Common Drugs for treatment:
Anti-VEGF Injection Therapy.
Digital Retinal Screening Programs
Optical coherence tomography
Computer Vision Approach
Diabetes is the 10th leading cause of death in Singapore accounting for 1.7 per cent of total deaths in 2011. 400,000: Number of diabetics in Singapore in 2013. Most are aged above 40. 600,000: Projected number of diabetics by 2030.The World Health Organization estimates that more than 346,000,000 people worldwide have diabetes. There were 533,600 cases of diabetes in Singapore in 2014. 533.6 Number of cases of diabetes in adults that are undiagnosed. 4,160 Number of deaths in adults due to diabetes. In particular, diabetes mellitus was newly diagnosed in 7.1% of a 6.7 million “healthy” working age population (aged 35 to 55 years) engaged in social services (teachers, health care professionals, those engaged in arts). the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) puts the number at around 387 million worldwide, with just over 500,000 people aged between 20 and 79 having the disease in Singapore (as of 2014).
Current Research in Diabetic retinopathy
With increasing global prevalence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is set to be the principle cause of vision impairment in many countries. DR affects a third of people with diabetes and the prevalence increases with duration of diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypertension-the major risk factors for the onset and progression of DR. There are now increasing data on the epidemiology of diabetic macular edema (DME), an advanced complication of DR, with studies suggesting DME may affect up to 7 % of people with diabetes. The risk factors for DME are largely similar to DR, but dyslipidemia appears to play a more significant role. Early detection of DR and DME through screening programs and appropriate referral for therapy is important to preserve vision in individuals with diabetes. Future research is necessary to better understand the potential role of other risk factors such as Apo lipoproteins and genetic predisposition to shape public health programs.