Dressler syndrome is a secondary form of pericarditis that occurs in the setting of injury to the heart or the pericardium (the outer lining of the heart). It consists of fever, pleuritic pain, pericarditis and/or a pericardial effusion. Dressler syndrome is also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome
Dressler syndrome occurs in about 7% of myocardial infarctions, and consists of a persistent low-grade fever, chest pain (usually pleuritic in nature), pericarditis (usually evidenced by a pericardial friction rub), and/or a pericardial effusion. The symptoms tend to occur 2–3 weeks after myocardial infarction, but can also be delayed for a few months. It tends to subside in a few days, and very rarely leads to pericardial tamponade. An elevated ESR is an objective laboratory finding.
Dressler syndrome is typically treated with colchicine. In some resistant cases, corticosteroids can be used but are not preferred due to the high frequency of relapse when corticosteroid therapy is discontinued. NSAIDs though once used to treat Dressler syndrome, are less advocated and should be avoided in patients with ischemic heart disease. One NSAID in particular, indomethacin can inhibit new collagen deposition thus impairing the healing process for the infarcted region. NSAIDS should only be used in cases refractory to aspirin. Heparin in Dressler syndrome should be avoided because it can lead to hemorrhage into the pericardial sac leading to tamponade.